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Reports & Studies

Bulletins / Guides



Agenda 21

Programme of action on sustainable development adopted at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992, often referred to as the “Blueprint for Sustainable Development”.
Agenda 21 has 40 chapters dealing with all aspects of sustainable development including social and economic dimensions (combating poverty and promoting human health), conservation and resource management, major groups (e.g. women, indigenous people, business and unions) and means of implementation (e.g. financial resources, transfer of technology, public awareness and education).

Best environmental practice

The application of the most appropriate combination of environmental
control measures and strategies.

Best available technique

Most effective and advanced technique, the environmental impacts of
which are limited.

Clean technologies

Both process and product engineering that reduces the pollutants and environmental impacts inherent in industrial production

Environmental Impact Assessment

Process by which the environmental consequences of a proposed project or programme are evaluated and alternatives are analyzed. EIA is an integral part of the planning and decision-making processes

Environmentally Sound Management

Defined as taking all practicable steps to ensure that hazardous waste or other wastes are managed in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against adverse effects which may result from such wastes, in terms of the Basel Convention


General agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1994). One of the agreements annexed to the Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organisation (WTO).


Hydrofluorocarbons. Regulated under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol as well as under the Montreal Protocol.


International Organization for Standardization. Non-governmental organization the members of which are national standards institutes of 156 countries. Established in 1946 to facilitate the international coordination and unification of industrial standards.

Johannesburg Plan of Implementation

One of the outcomes of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). Outlines a framework for action to implement the commitments undertaken at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) including goals and timebound targets.

Rio Declaration

Shorthand for the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development adopted at the Rio Conference, the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. Set of 27 Principles on sustainable development.


A dynamic process that guarantees the persistence of natural and human systems in an equitable manner. Sustainable development (SD): Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987)

Strategic environmental assessment

Procedure for incorporating environmental consideration into national policies, plans and programmes. Sometimes referred to as “strategic environmental impact assessment”.

Sustainable use

Use in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term degradation of the environment, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations.

نهج تحوطي/ مبدأ تحوطي

نهج / مبدأ لا يجوز، وفقاً له، اتخاذ عدم اليقين العلمي الكامل ذريعة لتأجيل العمل عندما يكون هناك خطر إلحاق ضرر جسيم أو لا رجعة فيه على البيئة أو صحة الإنسان